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Es have been identified, including NF-B, Ets, and AP-1 within the MMP-9 promoter [22], which can be induced by diverse stimuli. A recent report has shown that LTA increases MMP-9 expression via ERK pathway in RAW 264.7 macrophages [23]. Moreover, our studies have demonstrated that interleukin-1 (IL1b), bradykinin (BK) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) up-regulate MMP-9 expression via NF